My ip address is 18.104.22.168
A IP address (my ip address) - stands for Internet Protocol address - is a unique identifier of your device, that make you visible from inside your network, and outside your network (the internet). This address is either easily readable like above (IPv4) or less easily readable (IPv6). Generally speaking the generic term "IP" refers to the IPV4. Your ISP or network can provide you a static IP address, which doesn’t change, a dynamic IP address which can change often, mainly in case of a new connection.
Example of IPv4 : 22.214.171.1247
Example of IPv6 : 2a02:678:21d:3c33:4965:16r8:b419:2q07
If you cannot access a website it can be because your ip address has been blocked by a proxy server or a firewall. The best and easiest way to check your ip address is to bookmark this page and then you can check anytime and very rapidly.
The hostname of your internet connection is the name of the server mentioned above, just after your ip address. It is the server name that your internet service provider (ISP) uses to give you access to the internet. It can be a single word but more generally it is many words separated with dots and a maximum lengh of 253 ASCII characters. It can be called domain name when it comes to the internet.
Find my IP location is not always immediate. When you have an extension to the server hostname like .co.uk, .de, .fr you can easily deduct your ip location country. But most of the time the server hostname has either a .com extension or no extension at all (check in the box top of this page to see whether or not your hosname have any extension). Hostnames are linked to the ISP, which is linked to its datacenters, that are physically located somewhere, and often splitted in many locations for security matters. That is why you need a server database that list the server hostnames and the ISP associated.
IP spoofing is one of the common technique in IT hacking. As a network administrator you are supposed to block all the connections from devices (with their IP) that are not supposed to access your network. One way for a hacker to access your network is to present itself with an authorized ip address, the attacker overtake security mesures and access your network. That is the spoofing.